Protocol ? Its functions and types I Leo Tutorials I

What is Protocol ? Its Function and Types ?

What is Protocol


           A set of rules, standards and principle are required to exchange of data between them. This set of convention is referred as a protocol. In other words, a protocol is a set of rules that governs the communication between computers on a network. These rule's are guidelines that regulate the access method, allowed physical topologes, types of cabling and speed of data transfer. Protocols also determine sender and receiver should follow the same protocol to communicate data. Without the protocol's, the sender and receiver cannot communicate with each other. There are three key elements of a protocol are as follows :



  • Syntex :  

Syntex refer to the structure or format of the data meaning the order in which they are presented.
  • Semantics :

Semantic's refer to the meaning of each section of bits.
  • Timing : 

Timing refer the two characteristics, when data should be sent and how fast they can be sent.

        Functions of protocol : 

 The functions of protocol are as follows :
  1. segmentation, re-assembly,
  2. encapsulation,
  3. connection control,
  4. flow control,
  5. error control,
  6. synchronization,
  7. addressing,
  8. sequencing,
  9. multiplexing,
  10. transmission services

          Protocols Used in OSI Models : 

The protocol used in OSI model, are as follows :
  1. File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ) : 

FTP is the standard's mechanism provided by TCP/IP for copying an file from one host to another. Transferring file's from one computer to another is one of the most common tasks expected from a networking or internet working environment. Transferring files from one system to another seems simple and straight-forward . For example, two system's may have different way's to represent text and data, two system may have different directory structure.These problem have been solved by FTP. FTP differ from other cilent/server applications in that it establishes two connections between the hosts. One connection is used for data transfer and other from control information ( command, reponse ). Seperation of command and data transfer makes FTP more efficient. The control connection uses very simple rule of communication.
  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ) : 

The standard web transfer protocol is HTPP ( hyper text transfer protocol ). Each interaction consists of one ASCII request followed by one RFC 822 MIME-Line reponse. Although, the use of TCP for the transfer connection is very common, it is not formally required by the standard.
  • Point to Point  Protocol ( PPP ) : 

PPP ( point to point protocol ) is a protocol's for communication's between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to server. For example, your internet server's provider may provide you with a PPP connection's so that the provider's server can respond to your request internet-response back to you PPP uses the internet protocol ( IP ).
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) :

 A standard application layer protocol for delivery of e-mail over a TCP/IP internet works such as the internet. The basics of simple mail transfer protocol ( SMTP ) are defined in requests for comments ( RFC) 821 and 822.  


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